Computers are made up of many special parts, such as a ROM, RAM, CPU and hard disk. Each of these parts is made up of slighter parts, called components. For Example, a circuit can be viewed as an element of the motherboard along with a video card can be viewed as an element of the computer.

The template for all modern computers is the Von Neumann architecture, detailed in a 1945 paper by Hungarian mathematician John von Neumann. This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter, a memory to store both data and instructions, external mass storage, and input and output mechanisms.

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The hard disk was invented on September 13, 1956 by IBM team led by Rey Johnson (considered as “father” of the disk drive). Earlier hard disk drives were large and cumbersome devices.