Tag Archives: Bits and Bytes


In computer systems, goodput will be the application-level throughput, i.e. the amount of helpful data pieces, sent from the community to some particular location, per unit of time.

The quantity of information deemed limits retransmitted data packets in addition to protocol overhead bits.This measurement includes all the internet protocol overhead information, such as packets headers and other data that is included in the transfer process.

Examples of factors that cause lower goodput than throughput are:
• Protocol overhead: Typically, transport layer, network layer and sometimes datalink layer protocol overhead is included in the throughput, but is excluded from the goodput.
• Transport layer flow control and congestion avoidance: For example, TCP slow start may cause a lower goodput than the maximum throughput.
• Retransmission of lost or corrupt packets due to transport layer automatic repeat request (ARQ), caused by bit errors or packet dropping in congested switches and routers, is included in the datalink layer or network layer throughput but not in the goodput.



Stands for “Unicode Transformation Unit” Generally Transformation Format, a technique of converting Unicode characters, that are 16-bits each, into 7- or 8-bit characters. UTF-7 converts Unicode into ASCII for transmission more than 7-bit email programs, and utf8 converts Unicode to 8-bit bytes.


“Kilobits Per Second” Stands for “Kilobits Per Second.” Don’t confuse this with Kilobytes per second (which is 8 times more data per second).

This term is commonly used in describing data transfer rates. For example, two common modem speeds are 33.6 Kbps and 56 Kbps.


The yobibyte is a multiple of the system byte for electronic data. It’s an associate of the group of models with binary prefixes defined from the International Electro technical Commission (IEC).

Its product image is YiB.The prefix yobi (image Yi) signifies multiplication by 10248. A yobibyte is 1,024 zebibytes and is the largest unit of measurement.


A communication medium in which units of time considered during transferring the amount of data is called bandwidth.

High bandwidth speed connections easily download files from different websites in quickest way.

For digital signal bandwidth is measured in bits per second but in case of analog signals cycles or hertz are used as a measurement tool.


1024 is meant by the binary prefix kibi; hence 1 kibibyte is 1024 bytes. The component symbol for the kibibyte is KiB. A kibibyte is 1,024 bytes and precedes the Mebibyte unit of measurement.

The unit was established by the international electrosurgical commission (IEC) in 1998, has been accepted for use by all major standards organizations, and is part of the international system of quantities.


A Yottabyte is a measure of theoretical storage capacity and it is 2 towards roughly one thousand zettabytes, the 80th energy bytes or, in decimal, a billion terabytes, or one million trillion megabytes.

It seems fitting that “yotta” describes a “lotta” bytes. The yobibyte, which contains 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 bytes (280) bytes.


Baud is the unit of symbol rate which also known as baud or modulation rate. Named after the French engineer Jean-Maurice-Emile Baudot, who had been the primary applied to gauge the pace of telegraph signals.

A baud or baud rate may be the quantity of frequencies or currents created per minute on the point.

In digital systems (i.e., using discrete/discontinuous values) with binary code, 1 Bd = 1 bit/s. By contrast, non-digital (or analog) systems use a continuous range of values to represent information and in these systems the exact informational size of 1 Bd varies.


Abbreviated as KB, and K, kB, a kilobyte is equivalent to 1,024 bytes is additionally explained by the IEC as equivalent to 1,000 bytes.

kilobytes are often used synonymously with kibibytes which contain 1,024 bytes. Thus, a KB could actually equal either of these values is broadly accepted as being 1,024 bytes.


The zebibyte is a multiple of the system byte for electronic data. It’s an associate of the group of models with binary prefixes defined from the International Electro technical Commission (IEC).

Its product image is ZiB.The prefix zebi (image Zi) signifies multiplication by 10247. A zebibyte is exactly 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 bytes. A zebibyte is 1,024 exbibytes and precedes the yobibyte unit of measurement.



A little quantity of memory and quick for binary number and it is just one product of data that may possess a price of both OFF or ON. Eight bits constitute a byte.

These values are most commonly represented as 0and1. The term bit is a portmanteau of binary digit. It also used to interpret the logical values.

In information theory, one bit is typically defined as the uncertainty of a binary random variable that is 0 or 1 with equal probability, or the information that is gained when the value of such a variable becomes known.


Mbps stands for “Mega bits per second”, or Mb/s is quick for an incredible number of bits per minute or megabits per second. Mbps is a measurement used to look for the quantity of information it is smaller than MBps and being sent per minute.

While Mbps is used to measure data transfer speeds of high bandwidth connections, such as Ethernet and cable modems.


The zettabyte is a multiple of the system byte for electronic data. The prefix zetta implies multiplication from the seventh power of 1000 or 1021 within the International Program of Models (SI).

Consequently one zettabyte is one sextillion (one extended size trilliard) bytes. Zettabytes are slightly smaller than zebibytes, which contain 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 (270) bytes.


The speed or rate which can be transferred from one place to another place. They are measured in bits pr second, mbps or kbps. Whilst the bitrate increases the sound quality may boost.

For Example, MP3 files having a bitrate of 128KBPS are far more prone to sound than a MP3 file having a bitrate of 64KBPS. The 128KBPS MP3 file will be greater in dimensions.

In digital communication systems, the physical layer gross bitrate,  raw bitrate, data signaling rate, gross data transfer rate or uncoded transmission rate (sometimes written as a variable Rbor fb is the total number of physically transferred bits per second over a communication link, including useful data.


A Mebibyte is 1,048,576 bytes, or just a product of information storage that means 2 towards the 20th energy.

There is a Mebibyte 1,024 proceeds and Kibibyte the Gibibyte product of measurement. A mebibyte is 1,024 kibibytes and precedes the gibibyte unit of measurement.

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A memory leak is like a virtual oil leak in your computer. It slowly drains the available memory, falling the amount of open memory the system can use.

The majority memory leaks are caused by a program that by accident uses up rising amounts of memory while it is running.

The most ordinary reason programs have memory leaks is due to a programming error where idle memory is not owed back to the system.


In computers, a BLOB means “binary large Objects” obvious BLAHB and often spelled in most lowercase, is just a big file, usually a picture or sound file, that really must be managed (for Example, submitted, saved or located in a database) in an unique way due to the size.

The data type and definition was introduced to describe data not originally defined in traditional computer database systems, particularly because it was too large to store practically at the time the field of database systems was first being defined in the 1970s and 1980s.

The data type became practical when disk space became cheap. This definition gained popularity with IBM’s DB2.


Abbreviated as mbit or Meg, MB is limited for megabyte. A MB is a typical description combined with computer storage media.
A Megabyte is corresponding to 1, 576 bytes, 048. The IEC identifies this one MB is corresponding to 1,000,000 bytes, or 106. Though generally the initial price can be used in processing thus, a MB might truly equivalent both of those beliefs.

It contains 1,048,576 bytes (220 or 1,024 x 1,024 bytes).In 1998 the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) proposed standards for binary prefixes requiring the use of megabyte to strictly denote 10002 bytes and mebibyte to denote 10242 bytes.

By the end of 2009, the IEC Standard had been adopted by the IEEE, EU, ISO and NIST. Nevertheless, the term megabyte continues to be widely used with different meanings.



Stands for “Bytes per Second” a particular way to measure the data transfer rates and internet download speed. Many pieces move a particular stage in one single second bps is just a dimension of the information transmission velocity and suggests.

The bigger the bps charges the quicker the post or download period is likely to be. For Example, having a Device that’s 28.8bps it’s of sending no more than 28.8 bits per minute just capable.

The bandwidth of a signal depends on the speed in bps. With some exceptions, the higher the bps number, the greater is the nominal signal bandwidth. (Speed and bandwidth are, however, not the same thing.) Bandwidth is measured in standard frequency units of kHz or MHz.



Stands for “Maximum Transmission Unit”, MTU is the maximum packet size the area device is able to sending. Automatically, network devices and several computers set the MTU to 1500.

A larger MTU brings greater effectiveness because each packet carries more user data while protocol overheads, such as headers or fundamental per-packet delays, remain permanent; the resulting higher competence means an improvement in bulk protocol throughput


A byte is standard developed by Bob Bemer a byte is a unit of measurement used to measure the data and one byte include eight binary bits. You are able to think about a byte as you notice.

The unit symbol for the byte was designated as the upper-case letter B by the IEC and IEEE in contrast to the bit, whose IEEE symbol is a lower-case b. Internationally, the unit octet symbol o, explicitly denotes a sequence of eight bits, eliminating the ambiguity of the byte for Example, the letter ‘h’ is one byte or 8-bits and also the term ‘hope’ is 4 bytes or 32-bits (4*8).


A null character has a numeric value of zero and can be used to represent the end of a string of characters, such as a word or phrase. All the bits of null characters are set to only zero.

It make easier for the programmer to evaluate the extent of strings. In many practical applications null characters are often used for fillers for spaces such as in database and spreadsheet programs.

While in “C” computer language like others it derivative data in many formats as a reserved character to identify the end of a string.


Stands for “Character Large Object” A CLOB are just a knowledge form utilized by numerous database administration methods, including DB2 and Oracle. It retailers considerable amounts of personality information, as much as 4 GB in dimensions.

The CLOB data form is comparable to a BLOB, but contains character development, which identifies the method and also a figure collection each figure is displayed. Database systems vary in their storage patterns for CLOBs.

Some systems always store CLOBs as a reference to out-of-table data, while others store small CLOBs in-table, changing their storage patterns when the size of the data grows beyond a threshold. Other systems are configurable in their behavior.


Half of a or four pieces byte. For Example, the decimal value of 10 within an 8-bit byte is 00001010 that same price in a-4-bit nibble is 1010.

A full byte (octet) is represented by two hexadecimal digits; as a result, it is universal to show a byte of information as two nibbles. The nibble is often called a “semioctet” or a “quartet” in a networking or any telecommunication context


Raw facts and figures called data and after processing it becomes information which can be used for any purposes. Commonly the data is entered into the computer for processing to find out the result which can be used for decisions making and any other purpose depending upon the user need.

A program is a set of data that consists of a series of coded software instructions to control the operation of a computer or other machine. Physical computer memory elements consist of an address and a byte/word of data storage. Digital data are often stored in relational databases, like tables or SQL databases, and can generally be represented as abstract key/value pairs.

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A pebibyte is a unit of data storage that equals 2 to the 50th power. It’s an associate of the group of models with binary prefixes defined from the International Electro technical Commission (IEC).

A pebibyte is exactly 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes.


Data Transfer Rate is often measured in megabytes per seconds (MBps). In telecommunications, data transfer rate is the average number of bits (bitrate), characters or symbols (baud rate), or blocks (packet rate) per unit time passing between equipment in a data transmission system.

The units usually refer to the “effective” number of transfers, or transfers perceived from “outside” of a system or component, as opposed to the internal speed or rate of the clock of the system. One example is a computer bus running at double data rate where data is transferred on both the rising and falling edge of the clock signal. If its internal clock runs at 100 MHz, then the effective rate is 200 MT/s, because there are 100 million rising edges per second and 100 million falling edges per second of a clock signal running at 100 MHz.


A string is a data kind used in programming language such as an integer and floating point unit, but is used to symbolize text and numbers.

It is comprised of a set of characters that can also include spaces and numbers.“computer”


An Exabyte (EB) is just a big product of computer data storage, two towards the sixtieth power bytes. The prefix exa means one quintillion, which is really a decimal expression, or one billion.

Two for the sixtieth power is clearly significantly, or 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes in decimal over a quintillion (or five towards the eighteenth power) bytes.

In 2013, Randall Munroe compiled published assertions about Google’s data centers, and estimated that the company has about 10 exabytes stored on disk, and additionally approximately 5 exabytes on tape backup.[28] The company has refused to comment on Munroe’s estimate.


The tebibyte is a multiple of the system byte for electronic data. It’s an associate of the group of models with binary prefixes defined from the International Electro technical Commission (IEC).

Its product mark is TiB. The prefix tebi (image Ti) represents multiplication by 10244. A tebibyte is 1,024 gibibytes and precedes the pebibyte unit of measurement.


Stands for “Gigabits per second”, Gbps is a way of testing just how much information has been sent per second. Gbps is equal to a million bits transmitted per minute.

While latest residential speedy internet connections are commonly measured as a multiple of bits per second, such as megabits per second (Mbit/s). When used to describe data transfer rates, a gigabit equals 1,000,000,000 bits.

Gigabits per second is used to rate high-speed serial data transfers such as with SATA and SAS disk drives or high-speed network transmission such as Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet.


A terabyte (TB) is just a measure of computer storage capability that’s 2 towards the 40th power or roughly a billion bytes (that’s, one thousand gigabytes). The prefix tera comes from the Greek word for monster.

It is calculated towards the 12th energy, or 1000,000,000,000 bytes as 10.


A gibibyte is a unit of data storage that equals 2 to the 30th power, or 1,073,741,824 bytes. A gibibyte is 1,024 Mebibyte and precedes the tebibyte unit of measurement.

The use of “GB” or “gigabyte” to refer to 1000000000 bytes in some contexts and to 1073741824 bytes in others, sometimes in reference to the same device, has caused some confusion among consumers. In a few cases this has led to legal challenges against the makers of storage devices. 


Stands for “Floating Point Function Per Second”, it is a rating used to point exactly how many floating point functions a microprocessor is effective at doing each second.

For Example, 20 Mflops is corresponding to 20-Million FLOPS per minute. Teraflop or a tflop is indicated like a billion floating point operations per second, 1012 floating point operations per second, or 240 power flops.

Teraflops are often used to measure supercomputer presentation and the rate of technical calculations, which are based primarily on floating point operations.


A gigabyte (GB) is a measure of computer data storage capacity and it is “approximately” a million bytes. A gigabyte is 1, or two towards the 30th energy,073, 741 in decimal notation.The word is pronounced with two hard Gs. The prefix, “giga” originates from a Greek word meaning “giant.”

To address this ambiguity, the International System of Quantities standardizes the binary prefixes which denote a series of integer powers of 1024. With these prefixes, a memory module that is labeled as having the size 1GB has one gibibyte (1GiB) of storage capacity.


Global identity standard that’s effective at having a distinctive range between U+0000 to U+10FFFF, meaning a Unicode might be 8-bit, 16-bit, or 32-bit. Each figure is designated a signal level, for Example, U+0041 is the English letter A.

While ASCII only uses one byte to signify each character, Unicode supports up to 4 bytes for each character.