Tag Archives: Programming


Dart is a programming language originally developed by Google and it is used for general-purpose. It is approved as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-408). It can support interfaces, mixins, abstract classes, reified generics, and optional typing. Dart was exposed at the GOTO conference in Aarhus, Denmark, October 10–12, 2011. The project was developed and founded by Lars Bak and Kasper Lund.

Invented by:Google
Year Invented:October 10–12, 2011

Google has developed language programming software called Dart. After that, it is approved by as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-408). You can use it to make the web, server and mobile applications, and for Internet of Things (IoT) devices. You can avail it as open-source software under a permissive free software license (modified BSD license).

URL: https://www.dartlang.org/


Apple’s intrinsic object-oriented application programming interface (API) is Cocoa for their operating system macOS. For iOS, tvOS, and watchOS, a similar API exists, named Cocoa Touch, which includes gesture recognition, animation, and a different set of graphical control elements. It is in applications for Apple devices such as iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, Apple TV, and Apple Watch.

Invented By: NeXT
Year Invented: in the 1980s and 1990s

Cocoa also has a level of Internet support, including the NSURL and WebKit HTML classes, and others, while OpenStep had only basic support for managed network connections via NSFileHandle classes and Berkeley sockets.


Rust is a wide-ranging purpose programming language which is sponsored by Mozilla Research. Its designing is very “safe, concurrent, practical language”, supporting functional and imperative-procedural paradigms. Rust is open source and free software. The language design is very refine through the understandings of writing the Servo web browser layout engine and the Rust compiler.

Invented By: Graydon Hoare
Year Invented: 2010

There is a main purpose to maintain a rust language. This is to be suited for every system and programming. There are several boundaries which can preserve the large system integrity. There are several features with an emphasis on safety, control of memory layout, and concurrency.


There is an imperative and procedural programming language which is called Pascal. It is designed by Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970 it is a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming performs using designed programming and data structuring.

Invented By: Niklaus Wirth
Year Invented: 1970

There are several other popular programming languages but pascal is famous programming language. It has a huge range of values which the variable is capable of storing. It also describes a set of operations that are allowable to be performed on variables of that type.


ABAP is a programming language. You can use it or it can run in the SAP ABAP runtime environment. It is created and used by SAP for the development of application programs including, Reports, Module Pool Programming, Interfaces, Forms, Data conversions, User Exits & BADI.

Invented By: SAP SE
Year Invented: 1983


There is a high-level programming language called ABAP. It is created by the German software company SAP SE. It is currently placed, alongside Java, as the language for programming the SAP Application Server. It is a part of the Net Weaver stand for constructing business applications.



There is a lightweight language program called Lua. It is a lightweight multi-paradigm programming language that is designed primarily for embedded systems and clients. Lua is cross-platform, since it is written in ANSI C. it possesses a relatively simple C API. In general, Lua provides simple, flexible meta-features that can be extended as needed.

Invented By: Roberto Ierusalimschy, Waldemar Celes , Luiz Henrique de Figueiredo
Year Invented: 1993


Lua is software which is famous for “multi-paradigm” language. It is providing a small set of general features that can be extended to fit different problem types, rather than providing a more complex and rigid specification to match a single paradigm. Lua does not contain explicit support for legacy, but it can allow it to be implemented with metastable.


Haskell is a programming language which is standardized, general-purpose purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing. It is often known as logician Haskell Curry. Haskell 2010 is a latest standard of Haskell. As of May 2016, a group is working on the next version, Haskell 2020.

Invented By: Lennart Augustsson, Dave Barton, Brian Boutel, Warren Burton, Joseph Fasel, Kevin Hammond,
Year Invented: 1990


Every function in Haskell is related mathematical sense (i.e., “pure”). Even side-effecting IO operations are but a description is more concerned about to do, produce by pure code. You can find no statements or instructions, only expressions that cannot transform variables (local or global) or access state like time or random numbers.



Go is a free and open source programming language which is often called (often referred to as golang). It is created at Google. Go makes it easy to build simple, reliable, and efficient software. Specification of the language is very simple to hold in a programmer’s head. There are number of built-in types, including numeric ones (byte, int64, float32, etc.), Booleans, and character strings (string).

Invented By: Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, Ken Thompson
Year Invented: November 10, 2009


Go is identifiably in the tradition of C, but it makes numbers of changes to improve brevity, simplicity, and safety. Go entails of a syntax and environment adopting patterns more common in the dynamic language?


Bash is a UNIX shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU. The work was done on this project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.

Invented By: Brian Fox

Year Invented: January 10, 1988

This is a command processor. Normally you can run it in a text window, where the user types commands that cause actions. Command can also be read from a file by Bash. These are called a script. Same like all other UNIX shells, it backs filename piping, here documents, command substitution, variables and regulate edifices for condition-testing and repetition.


Go Programming is an open source programming language called Go. It can make easy to build modest, dependable, and efficient software. You can use this language in complied and static type language in the tradition of Algol and C, with garbage collection, limited structural typing, memory safety features and CSP-style coexisting programming features added.


Invented By: by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.

Year Invented: in 2007

Go is a programing language which is clearly in the practice of C, it can make different changes to increase wit, easiness, and safety. It has more adopting patterns which are mutual in dynamic languages.


Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, or J2ME are collected of Java APIs targeting embedded consumer products such as PDAs, cell phones and other consumer appliances. J2ME is very popular application for generating games for cell phones, as it can be outdone on a PC during the development stage and easily uploaded to the phone.

Invented By: Sun Microsystems

Year Invented: In the 1992

These dissimilarities with the exertion of developing, testing, and loading games. But it provides other special gaming platforms such as those made by Nintendo, Sony, and others, as expensive system-specific hardware and kits are required.


Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is a software programming interface (API) for the programming language Java, which explains how a purchaser might also get entry to a database. It is fragment of the Java preferred edition platform, from Oracle corporation. It offers procedures to question and update data in a database, and is oriented toward relational databases.

Invented By: Sun Microsystems released JDBC

Year Invented: February 19, 1997

JDBC permits numerous applications to exist and be used by the same application. The API offers an appliance for energetically loading the correct Java packages. It also helps to register them with the JDBC Driver Manager.


The application framework is called the spring framework. It is an inversion of control vessel for the Java platform. Java applications work for the framework’s core structure. Some extensions are used to build web applications on top of the java EE platform. Spring’s framework has a web component which is called Spring MVC. You can find rich functionality for building robust Web Applications.

Invented By: Mr. Rod Johnson

Year Invented: 2002

Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture is provided by the Spring Web MVC framework. It is a ready component and it can develop the flexible and loosely coupled web applications. The Spring MVC Framework has a special design in such a way that every portion of logic and functionality is highly configurable.



F# is a programming language. This is multi-dimensional and standard programming language that embraces handy, authoritative, and object-oriented programming methods. F# is an outstanding selection for enterprise development.

Invented By: it was designed by Don Syme

Year Invented: it was designed in May 2005

F# is affiliated with the ML language family. It permits handlers and organizations to grab multipart computing problems with modest, supportable and robust code. It carries very common programming chores which are much simpler in F#. it keep the stuffs like creating and using complex type definitions, doing list processing, comparison and equality, state machines, and much more.

URL: http://www.fsharp.org


Scala is an abbreviated term for “Scalable Language”. Scala is a programming language which provides backing to functional programming and a strong static type system. You can run Scala on the JVM. Java and Scala classes can be assorted without any hesitation. They can equally denote to each other, the Scala compiler holds a subset of a Java compiler to make sense of such recursive dependencies.

Invented By:  Martin Odersky

Year Invented: Scala started in 2001 but formally released in 2012.

Scala is an unalloyed, solid and object-oriented programming language. This programming language supports to the progressive sections and architectures through programs and characters.

URL: https://www.scala-lang.org

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EmberJS is an open-source JavaScript web framework for creating the web applications. This framework is based on (MVVM) pattern. Ember.js permits developers to generate accessible single-page web applications.  Desktop and mobile applications can also be created in EmberJS.

Invented By: This framework was shaped by Yehuda Katz

Year Invented: it was created In December 2011

EmberJS framework is under (MIT license). As compared to other JavaScript libraries Ember.js application is smaller in magnitude. It habitually regulates the path and organizer during affirmation of the route resources. This is a flexible framework that holds the concept of fast web page with broad view type support.

URL: http://www.emberjs.com

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BackboneJS is a small assortment of mechanisms which you can use to help in organizing your code.  BackboneJS will be effectual if you are looking for an improved design with less code. BackboneJS has impulsive server-side aptitudes. It proposes MVC structure which extracts data into models, DOM into views and impasses these two using events.
Invented By:  it was created Jeremy Ashkenas

Year Invented: it was released on October 13th, 2010

This is the key to keep your JavaScript code arranged, well ordered and it keeps your markup separate from the data powering your web applications. The BackboneJS, lightweight JavaScript library delivers good functionality.

URL: http://www.backbonejs.org


Cordova is also called Phone Gap. It a platform to build native mobile applications in different languages include HTML5, CSS and Javascript.

It helps software programmers to build mobile applications. It has native plug-ins which allows developers to add more functionality from javascript by directly interaction with native layer and the HTML5 page.

With the help of plugin the user has access to modify the cameras, compass, file system etc.

URL: https://cordova.apache.org


The latest version of Sencha was released in June 2015. It is a user interface developed for the mobile web. It is look like native application which are supported on mobile devices.

Like other applications it has web standards which include CSS3, HTML5 and Javascript. It has quick and easy interface for mobile application which can be run on Andriod, IOS, and other devices at the same time.

It has many functions which include double tape, scroll swipe and pinch. It also supports to graphical charts such as bar graphs, line series etc. The user can create easily different profiles according to screen sizes for better suitability.

URL: http://www.sencha.com


Unity is a theoretical language introduced by K.Mani chandy and Jayadev misra for their book parallel program design. It runs randomly but has not flow of control in the program’s statements.

The unity langue is being used in power plant safety system, auto-pilot and other’s applications as a development tool for 3d games which can be run on multiple operating systems.

Founders By:  David Helgason, Nicholas Francis and Joachim Ante
Year Lunch: August 2, 2004

URL: https://www.unity3d.com

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Node.js is also called “Node”. Node.js is an open source javascript runtime environment for cross platform which develop many tools and applications of server.

Node.js is not a part of javascript framework. The developers can easily write new modules in javascript.  The design of node.js maximizes input and output operations in web applications for real time web applications, programs and many browser games.

Invented By:  Ryan Dahl
Year Invented: 2009


The libraries of Node.js are used to build server-side applications in Javascript. Node.js does not block any input/output because a single process needs a specific number of CPU cycles. In case of blocking the application will crash.

URL: https://www.nodejs.org


Python is simple and easy high-level language like others Perl, Ruby to understand and learn along with free to use for commercial applications also which is known as open source.

Python is recognized as a scripting language and it is frequently employed for developing dynamic content and Web applications. Python language can be executed on Mac, Windows and UNIX systems keeping ported with Java and .NET technology.

It features such as a dynamic types system and automatic memory management as well as large and comprehensive standard library. It can also support with a quantity of 3D imaging applications and 2D. Examples of applications that sustain a Python API comprise GIMP, Inscape, Blender, and Autodesk Maya. (.PY files) are used for scripts writing in Python language which can be parsed and executed in a quickest way.

Invented By:  Guido van Rossum
Year Lunch: January 1991


Complied programs can be saved (.PYC files) and even modules of programming referenced by additional Python programs.

URL: https://www.python.org


Perl stands for and “Practical Extraction Reporting Language”, Perl language can be an interpreted open and free source programming language produced by Larry Wall in 1987 that’s like the C/C++ languages.

Perl scripts are run on the server computer before any information is sent to your Web browser.Perl is among the additionally used languages on paper development and CGI programs for Web and web site applications and it is particularly good at parsing text, so programmers frequently use it for reading and searching through text files.

Invented By: Larry Wall
Year Invented: it was released on December 18, 1987


It is impossible for the users to see the Perl action codes because they are behind the scenes. Perl language has many built-in functions and features that provide powerful tools often used in shell programming in which all variables are marked with leading sigils and helpful to identify the data types easily.

It made portable across the windows and UNIX used by suppliers of software. While Perl included executable numerous windows resources kits in directory with other scripting tools to make it more effective.
#!/usr/bin/perl print “Hello World.\n”;


URL: https://www.perl.org


Objective-C is an object-oriented programming language and a super set of the C programming language developed in the early 1980s by Brad J. Cox. It is used by Apple for Iphone, Ipad and Macintosh application programming interfaces, Cocoa and Cocoa Touch which provides object-oriented abilities and a dynamic run time.

It is the most dynamic of C based and OO languages. The objective-C runtime environment is a part of GNU C compiler (gcc.) as well as NeXT and Mac OS X compilers. Like C it has syntax, flow control statements, define classes and methods but also maintain the object graph management with literals.

Invented By:  Brad Cox and Tom Love
Year Invented: 1980


When developers need to develop applications for OS X or iOS, they need to work with objects which are instances of objective-C classes and some of other languages or you’ll write yourself to make it more effective and powerful. Objective-C header files have .h extensions, .m filename extensions commonly.

URL: https://developer.apple.com/library/content/documentation/Cocoa/Conceptual/ProgrammingWithObjectiveC/Introduction/Introduction.html


Visual Basic is a third-generation of computer programming language which provides integrated development environment and developed by Microsoft in 1991 for its COM programming model.

Visual basic language is easy to learn and use for all people who wanted to learn the computer languages. A programmer can generate an application using the elements provided by the Visual Basic program itself.

Over time the community of programmers has developed new third party components, maintenance this programming language to latest standards. It is very powerful and also to create advanced program.

For example, the Visual Basic language is developed to be “human readable,” means the source code can be understood with no requiring lots of comments.

The Visual Basic program also has advantages like “IntelliSense” and “Code Snippets,” which robotically generate code for visual objects added by the programmer.

Another excited characteristic, called “AutoCorrect,” can debug the code while the program is running.Programs designed with Visual Basic can be run on Windows on the Web inside Office applications, or on mobile devices.

Private Sub Command1_Click()

MsgBox “Hello, World!”
End Sub

URL: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/2x7h1hfk.aspx


It is high level language of computer which stands for “Beginner’s All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code” developed in 1960 to understand the programming language. It provided interactive and user friendly environment and even used for general purpose work.

Those who wanted to join as a programmer should be trained on basic before starting any other computer language. It has two modes direct mode and indirect mode.

When the user run this program it opens in direct mode by defaulft but indirect mode can be selected according to developers. It is the basic language of computer for those who want to learn computer programming as a beginners.  Like other languages it also has character set which is used to write programms in Basic language.



C# is very strong language with multiple features like strong typing, functional declarative and object-oriented as well as many more features with as compared to others.

Microsoft developed the C# language including .net idea and approved by Ecma and ISO as a standard and built on the sentence structure of C++. Anders Hejlsberg worked as a team leader to develop the C#.Currently C #5.0 versions is available in the market which introduced on August 15, 2012.

Invented By: it was created by Microsoft
Year Invented: it was released on 2000

Example Code:

using System;
namespace HelloWorld
class Hello
static void Main()
Console.WriteLine(“Hello World!”);

// Keep the console window open in debug mode.
Console.WriteLine(“Press any key to exit.”);

URL: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/csharp/



High level programming language and Object-oriented is added by C++ functions D, to its predecessor.

C++ is among the most widely used programming languages for example the ones that run-in Microsoft Windows, for visual programs.C++ is known as after the rise operator of D language.

Invented By: Bjarne Stroustrup
Year Invented: it was released on 1983

Below is example code:


int main(){

std::cout << "Hello World!";


URL: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/cplusplus/


The C programming language can also be a higher-stage programming language produced by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie from a virtually unfamiliar vocabulary called W at Bell Laboratories in 1972.

The very first main plan created in D was the UNIX OS, as well as for a long time, D was regarded as inextricably related to UNIX.


int main() {

printf(“Hello World”);


return 0;



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Stands for “Common Gateway interface” CGI enables customers visiting with a web site obtain and to deliver info from the host.

A typical Example of what sort of CGI software may be used is by permitting a person then return results-based around the search towards the web site, move these keywords to some CGI software to procedure a research, and to type-a group of keywords.

Frequently executables and CGI programs are tell you CGI-BIN directory.

#!/usr/bin/perl# hello.pl —

my first perl script!

print “Content-type: text/html\n\n”;

print “Hello, world!\n”;


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Stands for “Network Access Server”, NAS can also be called a critical server and it is a network or PC system that conveys you with service or another computer.

It stored internal and external hard drive data in a organized way. By using NAS, computers can store and access data using a centralized storage location.

For Example, when you call into connect with the Web; you are calling into a NAS.


Initially called Java is a computer programming language, oak and others at Sun Microsystems that was introduced to the people in 1995 and now is popular to create Internet applications and other software programs.

Now, Java is kept and owned by Oracle. Java provides strong internet applications and strength to the networking facilities. It is often used in games due strong language.

While fortunately, the JVM is included as part of the Java Runtime Environment which is available as a free download easily.

Invented By: James Gosling
Year Invented: it was released on May 23, 1995

Below is the code example of java language:

public class HelloWorld{

public static void main(String[] args) {

System.out.println(“Hello World!”);



URL: https://www.java.com



Stands for “Object Oriented Programming”, created by Alan Kay is a programming language that includes additional sections of external code.

An “object” in an OOP language refers to a specific type, or “instance,” of a class. An example of an object oriented programming language is Java. It is easier for the programmers to modify the objects without affecting the entire program along with updating it in object oriented languages.

For example, the source code of a video game may include a class that defines the structure of characters in the game.

Individual characters may be explained as an object, which allows them to have several appearances, skills, and abilities.

They may also execute different tasks in the game, which are sprint using each object’s specific methods.


Ruby is an open source object oriented programming language. The initial edition of the language (0.95) was released in 1995, as well as in 2011, version 1.9.3 was launched.

Ruby has been increasing recognition, along with a platform named Ruby on Rails has served to improve its use for web development.The Ruby language is wholly object-oriented, because everything is an object.

class HelloWorld

def initialize(name)

@name = name.capitalize


def sayHi

puts “Hello #{@name}!”



hello = HelloWorld.new(“World”)


URL: https://www.ruby-lang.org



Stands for “Structured Query Language”, SQL is a language formerly called SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language) which was produced by Dr. Edgar F. Codd in the IBM research center in 1974.

Later reduced to SQL but nonetheless obvious as sequel, SQL has transformed into the defacto standard database language.

SQL is commonly used for Web database development and management.

It is considered to be a standard language, there are tranquil a numeral of variations of it, such as mSQL and mySQL.

URL: https://www.w3schools.com/sql/

SELECT ‘Hello world’



Stands for “Unified Modeling Language”, a broad-purpose notational language for visualizing and revealing complex application, particularly big, object oriented projects.

UML builds on previous notational techniques for example Booch, OMT, and OOSE.


Variables are also used in computer programming to store specific values within a program. They are assigned both kinds of data as well as a value.

For example, a variable of the strings data kinds may contain a value of “sample text” while a variable of the integer data type may contain a value of “11”.

var price = 20;